Extension Name of Some Files

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Windows Operating System

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Data Communication

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Some Abbreviations In Computer

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

What Is The Internet

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Apr 22, 2013


To avoid the drawbacks in using DOS, the operating system windows are preferred to DOS as these are highly graphical in nature and interacts with the user using pictorial forms. Hence,
windows are of graphical user interface(GUI) types. The use of a mouse is imperative in the windows environment.
                 The first version of windows version 1 was basically and initially developed by Microsoft Corporation in USA in 1985 as a complement of DOS to avoid the limitations. This version is not accepted by computer world due to some limitations. The next versions are 1.2, 2.1 and 3.0 . However, the first successful version of windows is windows 3.1 and it was released in 1992.

                The version windows 3.1 did not gain much popularity. The computer users accepted the windows in late eighties when the windows 3.1 was updated into the work group  version windows 3.11 . both the windows 3.1 and 3.11 are not actually of full-fledged operating system. In fact during operations, DOS works at the background and the windows act as an interface system between operating system and user. In 1995, Microsoft Corporation
Windows Operating System
launched windows 95 which is a full-fledged operating system and any PC range computer can directly run using windows 95. The new versions of windows are windows 97 and windows 98 etc. Are more powerful and rich with the built-in facilities and becoming more and more popular. The updated and networked version of windows are windows XP, windows 7, windows 8 etc. These are very popular and presently used in all PC range computers.

Graphical User Interface(GUI):  In windows environment, writing commands are not required. It can be done by clicking the icons from a group of small pictures. In this case, it is not required to remember all the commands along with all the options and syntax.

Similar Set Of Commands:  The softwares used in windows environment use similar set of commands. Hence, it is not required to remember the commands for all the softwares.

Multitasking Facility: In windows environment, a number of tasks can be performed by partitioning the screen into a number of segments in which each window can perform individual task.

Dynamic Data Exchange: The windows provides facility to share and exchange data from any software very easily.

Object Linking And Embedding: Windows provides facility of clipboard and using this any object can be selected from any window based application and embed the part to any other application. Also the linking can be done between two objects. Here any change to any object automatically changes the linked object.

Open Database Connectivity: Here, data-based applications are designed to that database created by any application. This can be used and updated by any other application. Using this facility, programmers can develop more robust and versatile programs or packages.

Multi User Operating System: In developed version of windows, a number of users can operate simultaneously with one computer from different terminals.

Easy User Interface: In windows environment, two systems, though not compatible, can work together very efficiently.

Better Resource Management: The resource management can be done more efficiently.

Better Utilities And Accessories: Windows provides a good number of utilities and accessory programs and these are extremely helpful.

Plug And Play: This facility needs no installation or other formalities during addition or alteration of attached devices like CD drive, sound systems, video systems etc.

Online Help: Windows provides a powerful online help facility and using these, users can get valuable help and instructions during working.


WINDOWS XP(October 2001)
a. Released in 2001.
b. Offers some brighter color choices.
c. Variants-XP professional, XP home, windows XP media center edition and XP embedded also created 64 bit windows XP for use with AMD's opteron and Athlon 64 CPUs.
d. XP has digital media support. Through the use of windows media player, users of XP can take advantage of digital broadcast support as well as video and audio rendering for multimedia projects.
e. Advanced networking and communication -- XP takes advantage of universal plug and play support, which enables PC to find and use hardware connected via a network without forcing the user to configure the system or install drivers. It also makes use of internet connection sharing, which allows users to connect multiple computers to the internet via a single connection.
f. Advanced mobile computing-- through the use of features like automatic configuration, one can connect an XP based laptop to a desktop PC without knowing different types of network settings. Cellular phone can be used to connect to network.

WINDOWS VISTA(November 2006) 
a. Offered an advancement in reliability, security, ease of deployment, performance and manageability over Windows XP.
b. New in this version was capabilities to detect hardware problems before they occur, security features to protect against the latest generation of threats, faster start-up time and low power consumption of the new sleep state.
c. In many cases, Windows Vista is noticeably more responsive than Windows XP on identical hardware.
d. Windows Vista simplifies and centralizes desktop configuration management, reducing the cost of keeping systems updated.

WINDOWS 7(October 2009)
a. Windows 7 made its official debut to the public on October 22, 2009 as the latest in the 25 year old line of Microsoft Windows Operating systems and as the successor to Windows Vista.
b. Windows 7 was released in conjunction with Windows server 2008 R2, Windows 7's server counterpart.
c. Enhancements and new features in Windows 7 include multi-touch support, internet explorer 8, improved performance and start-up time, Aero Snap, Aero Shake, support for virtual hard disks, a new and improved Windows media center and improved security. 

Apr 18, 2013


At the present time there are over 200 recognized country domain names.Two letter abbreviations that represent the country names are used in addresses seen on the internet.
              This list should be useful when checking the origin of your own mail.

 .af --------------------   Afghanistan
 .al --------------------   Albania
 .dz -------------------    Algeria
 .as -------------------    American Samoa
 .ao ------------------     Angola
 .ad ------------------     Andorra
 .ai -------------------    Anguilla
 .aq ------------------     Antarctica
 .ag ------------------     Antigua and Barbuda
 .ar ------------------      Argentina
 .am -----------------     Armenia
 .aw -----------------     Aruba
 .ac ------------------     Ascension Island
 .au ------------------     Australia
 .at -------------------    Austria
 .az -------------------   Azerbaijan
 .bh ------------------    Bahrain
 .bd ------------------    Bangladesh
 .bb ------------------    Barbados
 .by ------------------    Belarus
 .be ------------------    Belgium
 .bz ------------------    Belize
 .bj -------------------    Benin
 .bm ------------------    Bermuda
Country Domain Names

 .bt -------------------    Bhutan
 .bo -------------------   Bolivia
 .ba -------------------   Bosnia
 .bw ------------------   Botswana
 .bv -------------------  Bouvet Island
 .br -------------------   Brazil
 .io -------------------   British Indian Ocean Territory
 .bn ------------------   Brunei
 .bg ------------------   Bulgaria
 .bf ------------------    Burkina faso
 .bi ------------------    Burundi
 .kh -----------------    Cambodia
 .cm ----------------    Cameroon
 .ca -----------------    Canada
 .cv -----------------    Cape Verde
 .cf -----------------    Central African Republic
 .td -----------------    Chad
 .gg -----------------    Channel Islands, Guernsey
 .je -----------------     Channel Islands, Jersey
 .cl -----------------     Chile
 .cn ----------------     China
 .cx ----------------     Christmas Island
 .cc ----------------     Cocos Islands
 .co ----------------     Colombia 
 .km ---------------     Comoros
 .cg ----------------     Congo
 .ck ----------------     Cook Islands
 .cr ----------------      Costa Rica
 .ci -----------------     Cote D'ivoire
 .hr -----------------     Croatia
 .cu -----------------     Cuba
 .cy -----------------     Cyprus
 .cz -----------------     Czech Republic
 .dk -----------------     Denmark
 .dj ------------------     Djibouti
 .dm ----------------     Dominica
 .do -----------------    Dominican Republic
 .tp -----------------     East Timor
 .ec ----------------      Ecuador
 .eg ----------------      Egypt
 .sv ----------------      El Salvador
 .gq ----------------     Equatorial Guinea
 .er ----------------      Eritrea
 .ee ----------------     Estonia
 .et ----------------     Ethiopia
 .fk ----------------     Falkland Islands
 .fo ----------------     Faroe Islands
 .fj -----------------     Fiji
 .fi -----------------     Finland
 .fr -----------------    France
 .gf ----------------     French Guiana
 .pf ----------------     French Polynesia
 .tf -----------------    French Southern Territories
 .fx ----------------     French Metropolitan
 .ga ----------------     Gabon
 .gm ---------------     Gambia
 .ge ----------------    Georgia
 .de ----------------    Germany
 .gh ----------------    Ghana
 .gi -----------------   Gibraltar
 .gr ----------------    Greece
 .gl ----------------    Greenland
 .gd ---------------    Grenada
 .gp ---------------    Guadeloupe
 .gu ---------------    Guam
 .gt ----------------    Guatemala
 .gn ---------------    Guinea
 .gw ---------------   Guinea Bissau
 .gy ----------------   Guyana
 .ht ----------------    Haiti
 .hm ---------------   Heard and Mcdonald Islands
 .hn ----------------   Honduras
 .hk ----------------   Hong Kong
 .hu ----------------   Hungary
 .is -----------------   Iceland
 .in ----------------    India
 .id ----------------    Indonesia
 .ir ----------------     Iran
 .iq ---------------     Iraq
 .ie ---------------     Ireland
 .im ---------------    Isle of Man
 .il -----------------   Israel
 .it -----------------   Italy
 .jm ---------------    Jamaica
 .jp ----------------   Japan
 .jo ----------------   Jordan
 .kz ----------------  Kazakhstan
 .ke ----------------  Kenya
 .ki -----------------  Kiribati
 .kp ----------------  Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of
 .kr ----------------   Korea, Republic Of
 .kw ---------------   Kuwait
 .kg ----------------   Kyrgyzstan
 .la -----------------   Laos
 .lv -----------------   Latvia
 .lb -----------------   Lebanon
 .ls -----------------    Lesotho
 .lr -----------------    Liberia
 .ly -----------------   Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
 .li ------------------  Liechtenstein
 .lt ------------------  Lithuania
 .lu -----------------  Luxembourg
 .mo ---------------   Macao
 .mk ---------------   Macedonia
 .mg ---------------   Madagascar
 .mw --------------   Malawi
 .my ---------------   Malaysia
 .mv ---------------   Maldives
 .ml ----------------   Mali
 .mt ----------------  Malta
 .mh ---------------  Marshall Islands
 .mq ---------------  Martinique
 .mr ---------------  Mauritania
 .mu --------------- Mauritius
 .yt ----------------  Mayotte
 .mx --------------   Mexico
 .fm ---------------  Micronesia
 .md --------------- Moldova
 .mc --------------- Monaco
 .mn --------------- Mongolia
 .ms ---------------  Montserrat
 .ma --------------   Morocco
 .mz --------------   Mozambique
 .mm -------------   Myanmar
 .na ---------------  Namibia
 .nr ---------------   Nauru
 .np ---------------  Nepal
 .nl ----------------  Netherlands
 .an ---------------  Netherlands Antilles
 .nc ---------------  New Caledonia
 .nz ---------------  New Zealand
 .ni ---------------   Nicaragua
 .ne --------------   Niger
 .ng --------------   Nigeria
 .nu --------------   Niue
 .nf ---------------  Norfolk Island
 .mp --------------  Northern Mariana Islands
 .no ---------------  Norway
 .om --------------  Oman
 .pk ---------------  Pakistan
 .pw --------------   Palau
 .pa --------------- Panama
 .pg --------------- Papua New Guinea
 .py --------------- Paraguay
 .pe --------------- Peru
 .ph --------------- Philippines
 .pn --------------- Pitcairn
 .pl ---------------  Poland
 .pt ---------------  Portugal
 .pr ---------------  Puerto Rico
 .qa --------------   Qatar
 .re --------------    Reunion
 .ro --------------   Romania
 .ru --------------   Russia
 .rw -------------   Rwanda
 .kn -------------   Saint Kitts and Nevis
 .lc --------------   Saint Lucia
 .vc -------------   Saint Vincent and The Grenadines
 .ws -------------  Samoa
 .sm -------------  San Marino
 .st --------------  Sao Tome and Principe
 .sa -------------   Saudi Arabia
 .sn -------------  Senegal
 .sc --------------  Seychelles
 .sl --------------- Sierra Leone
 .sg -------------- Singapore
 .sk -------------  Slovakia
 .si -------------- Slovenia
 .sb ------------- Solomon Islands
 .so ------------- Somalia
 .za ------------- South Africa
 .es ------------- Spain
 .lk ------------- Sri Lanka
 .sh ------------- St. Helena
 .pm ------------ St. Pierre and Miquelon
 .sd ------------- Sudan
 .sr -------------  Suriname
 .sj -------------  Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
 .sz ------------   Swaziland
 .se ------------  Sweden
 .ch -----------   Switzerland
 .sy ------------  Syria
 .tw ------------  Taiwan
 .tj -------------  Tajikistan
 .tz ------------   Tanzania
 .th ------------   Thailand
 .bs ------------   The Bahamas
 .ky ------------  The Cayman Islands
 .tg -------------  Togo
 .tk -------------  Tokelau
 .to -------------  Tonga
 .tt --------------  Trinidad and Tobago
 .tn -------------  Tunisia
 .tr -------------   Turkey
 .tm ------------   Turkmenistan
 .tc -------------   Turks and Caicos Islands
 .tv -------------   Tuvalu
 .ug ------------   Uganda
 .ua ------------   Ukraine
 .ae ------------   United Arab Emirates
 .uk ------------   United Kingdom
 .us -------------  United States
 .um ------------  United States Minor Outlying Islands
 .uy -------------  Uruguay
 .uz -------------  Uzbekistan
 .vu -------------  Vanuatu
 .va -------------  Vatican City State 
 .ve -------------  Venezuela
 .vn -------------  Vietnam
 .vg -------------   Virgin Islands(British)
 .vi --------------  Virgin Islands(US)
 .wf -------------   Wallis and Futuna Islands
 .eh -------------    Western Sahara
 .ye -------------    Yemen
 .yu -------------    Yugoslavia
 .zm -------------    Zambia
 .zw -------------    Zimbabwe


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