Extension Name of Some Files

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Windows Operating System

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Data Communication

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Some Abbreviations In Computer

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What Is The Internet

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Feb 27, 2013


Most of the time, problems can be fixed by using simple troubleshooting techniques, such as closing and re-opening the program. It's important to try these simple solutions before resorting to more extreme measures. If the problem still isn't fixed, you can
then try other troubleshooting techniques, such as reinstalling the software.

1. Computer will not start.
1.Review the documentation that came with the system to determine if you are using the correct memory modules and to verify the proper installation.
2. Observe the beeps and LED lights on the front of the computer.
3. If you still cannot resolve the issue, contact customer support. 

2.Program runs slowly or isn't working right.
1. If a program is running slowly or isn't working right, the first thing you should try is closing the program and re-opening it.
2. You can also shutdown your computer, wait a few seconds and boot it up again. Some minor problems will work themselves out when you do this.
3. Check with the company for any known problems or updates to the software.

3.Program is completely unresponsive.
1. If a program has become completely unresponsive, you can press Control+Alt+Delete on your keyboard to open the task manager. You can then select the program that isn't working and click end task. If you are using Mac, you can press Option+Command+Esc to open a similar dialog box.

4.Non-system disk or disk error message.
1. If you get this message when you boot up your computer, it usually means there is a CD, DVD, USB flash drive or floppy disk in your computer, which is interfering with your computer's booting process. Remove the disk from the drive and restart the computer.

5.Windows shutting down message will not disappear.
1. Sometimes windows will freeze during the shutdown process. If this happens, the windows is shutting down message screen will stay active on your screen. To finish shutting down the computer, press and hold the power button for about 10 seconds or until the computer turns off

6.Computer begins randomly rebooting or crashing.
1.Check for overheating. make sure the vents in the case are not blocked. Confirm that there is good air flow around the computer.
2. Update your antivirus software and scan for viruses.

7.No picture on the monitor.
1. Confirm the computer is turned on.
2. Check the brightness control, located on your monitor or your keyboard and make sure it is not set too low.
3. Check the connections for the monitor and surge protector and make sure the surge protector is turned on.

8.Monitor goes blank periodically.
1.You may have the screensaver enabled. If the screensaver is enabled, just move your mouse back and forth and your original screen will appear. You can change the screensaver settings by going to your control panel or your system preferences if you are using a mac.

9.No sound.
1. Check the volume control on your computer.In windows, the sound icon will usually be on the Taskbar and you can also access the sound options in the control panel. On Macs, the sound options are found at the top of the screen or in system preferences.
2. Most media programs have a volume control, which will need to be turned up.
3. Make sure the speakers are turned on, if using external speakers.
4.Make sure external speakers are connected to the correct audio port or a USB port. If your computer has color-coded ports, the audio output will usually be green.
5. Connect headphones to the correct audio port and determine if sound is audible from the headphones.

10.Dim Characters.
1. Adjust the monitor brightness and contrast controls.
2. Check that the graphics cable is securely connected to the graphics card and the monitor 

11.Computer appears locked up and will not turn off when the power button is pressed.
1. Press and hold the power button for at least four seconds until the computer turns off.
2. Disconnect the power cord from the electrical outlet.

12.Computer will not respond to USB keyboard or mouse.
1. Press the power button to resume from Standby mode(When attempting to resume from Standby mode, do not hold down the power button for more than four seconds.Otherwise, the computer will shut down and you will lose any unsaved data.).

13.Computer date and time display is incorrect.
1. Reset the date and time under Control Panel.
2. If the problem persists, replace the RTC battery.

14.Cursor will not move using the arrow keys on the keypad.
1. Press the Num Lock key. The Num Lock light should not be on if you want to use the arrow keys. The Num Lock key can be disabled(or enabled) in computer setup.

15.Poor performance is experienced.
1. Ensure airflow to the computer is not blocked. Ensure fans are connected and working properly. Ensure the processor heatsink is installed properly.
2. Transfer data from the hard drive to create more space on the hard drive.
3. Add more memory.
4. Defragment hard drive.
5. Restart the computer.
6. Run virus protection program.
7. Close unnecessary applications to free up memory. Add more memory.
8. Lower the display resolution for the current application or consult the documentation that came with the application for suggestions on how to improve performance by adjusting parameters in the application. Add more memory. Upgrade the graphics solution.

16.Power supply shuts down intermittently.
1. Select the proper AC voltage using the selector switch.
2. Contact an authorized service provider to replace the power supply.

17.Diskette drive light stays on.
1. In Microsoft Windows XP, right click on Start, click Explore, and select a drive. Select File----Properties----Tools. Under Error checking, click Check Now.
2. Remove diskette and reinsert.
3. Reconnect drive cable.ensure that all four pins on the diskette power cable are connected to the drive.

18.Drive not found.
1. Reset diskette drive data and power cable.
2. Reset the drive.
3. Shut down windows and turn off the computer. Insert the drive into the Multibay, if it is not already inserted. Turn on the computer.
4. Enter computer setup and set Multibay to Device Available in Security ---- Device Security.

19."Invalid system disk" message is displayed.
1. When drive activity stops, remove the diskette and press the Spacebar. The computer should start up.
2. Restart the computer by pressing the power button.

20.Cannot boot to diskette
1. Replace with a bootable diskette.
2. Run computer setup and enable diskette boot in Storage ---- Boot Order.
3. Run computer setup and enable diskette boot in Storage ---- Storage Options ----Removable Media Boot.

                 No- 2 and 3 steps should be used as the Removable Media Boot function in computer setup overrides the Boot Order enable command.
4. Run computer setup and disable Network Server Mode in Security ---- Password Options.
5. Run computer setup and enable removable media boot in Storage ---- Storage Options ---- Removable Media Boot.

21.Hard drive error occurs.
1. In windows XP, right click on Start menu, click Explore, and select a drive. Select File ---- Properties ---- Tools. Under Error Checking, click Check Now.
2. Use a utility to locate and block usage of bad sectors. If necessary, reformat the hard disk.

22.Disk transaction problem.
1. In windows XP, right click on Start, click Explore, and select a drive. Select File ---- Properties ---- Tools. Under Error Checking, click Check Now.

23.Computer seems to be locked up.
1. Attempt the normal windows "shut down" procedure. If this fails, press the power button for four or more seconds to turn off the power. To restart the computer, press the power button again.

24.Blank screen and the power LED flashes red five times, once every second, followed by a two second pause and the computer beeps five times.
1. Reset DIMMs. power on the system.
2. Replace DIMMs one at a time to isolate the faulty module.
3. Replace third party memory with HP memory.
4. Replace the system board.

25.Monitor does not function properly when used with energy saver features.
1. Disable monitor energy saver feature.

26.Blurry video or requested resolution cannot be set.
1. Install the video drivers included in the upgrade kit.
2. Change requested resolution.
3. Replace the graphics card.

27.The picture is broken up, rolls, jitters or flashes.
1. Be sure the monitor cable is securely connected to the computer.
2. In a two monitor system or if another monitor is in close proximity, be sure the monitors are not interfering with each others electromagnetic field by moving them apart.
3. Fluorescent lights or fans may be too close to the monitor.
4. Degauss  the monitor. Refer to the documentation that came with the monitor for instructions.

28.Image is not centered.
1. Press the menu button to access the OSD menu. Select Image Control ----- Horizontal Position or Vertical Position to adjust the horizontal or vertical position of the image.

29."No connection, check signal cable" displays on screen.
1. Connect the video cable between the monitor and computer(Ensure that the computer power is off while connecting the video cable).

30."Out of Range" displays on screen.
1. Restart the computer and enter safe mode. Change the settings to a supported setting then restart the computer so that the new settings take effect.

31.Certain typed symbols do not appear correct
1. Use the character map to locate the and select the appropriate symbol. Click Start ---- All Programs ---- Accessories ---- System Tools ---- Character Map. You can copy the symbol from the character map into a document.


The cache memory is a special type of fast access memory which is used in high speed computers to work as a buffer and is placed
between CPU and main memory in order to match their speeds of operation, thereby reducing the time of execution. The cache memory is a high speed memory, but expensive, hence it is smaller in size than other memories.

Cache memory is very important to the PC system. Cache sits on newer processor as L1(level 1) memory and on the board as L2(level 2) memory. This works as a buffer for the CPU. The CPU is faster than the rest of the system in most cases and needs a place
Cache  Memory
to store information that can be accessed fast. L1 and L2 can solve the problem. The cache lets the system catch up to the processor. The common processor of todays runs five times faster than the motherboard.

The L1 cache site on the CPU works as a buffer for the rest of the system to keep up with it. The same goes with L2 cache which acts more for information heading out of the CPU rather than in it.

The cache itself is made up of extremely fast silicon memory and is called SRAM(Static RAM). This is a super fast  RAM. Another feature of the SRAM is that it requires no refresh and actually interprets what the system will want next.

There are three types of cache .....
A. Asynchronous SRAM:
This RAM has speeds of 12, 15, 20 nanoseconds. The RAM is called Asynchronous because the processor has provided an address for each cache access. This is an older type cache and is found on 80386 and 80486 machines.

B. Synchronous Burst SRAM:
This RAM allows to work in step with the system clock.

C. Pipeline Burst SRAM:
This type of RAM is much like the Synchronous and is cheaper. Generally it is found on current pentium system.

Feb 24, 2013


A computer can only do what the programmer asks to do. To perform a particular task programmer prepares a sequence of instructions, called a program. A set of programs written for a particular computer is known as software for that computer.

                  So, software is an interface between the computer hardware and the users. Softwares are divided into three parts.

The hardware of computer system can do anything, software is required to direct it. System softwares are some sets of programs which are required by the computer system itself to run the process smoothly. In other words, these are some sets of programs which are used to control the operation of a computer. These programs are
not needed directly by the user to perform a specific task. But in order to solve any task of the user, it is required internally by the computer. The system software is stored in ROM disks. It includes operating system, assembler, compiler, editor, BIOS etc. System software can be divided into three parts...

a>System management/control program.
b>System support program
c>System development program.

Application software is the set of softwares required by the computer to perform specific task of the user. So, any software which is designed to do any specific task is known as application software. Today large number of application softwares are available to solve specific type of problems. Some application softwares are of general nature, such as wordstar, foxpro, oracle, sybase, MS-Office etc. Some application softwares have been developed for specific purposes, such as for designing building structures, power systems, inventory control, sales control, sales invoicing, network analysis etc. Advantages of application softwares are as follows..

a>Users get tested and well organised programs.
b>No time is lost for the development of program.
c>Quick implementation of results.

Application software can be classified into the following various catagories...

a>Data management software.
b>Data processing software.
c>Presentation software.
d>Word processing and editing software.
e>Multimedia and animation software.
f>Productivity and CAD/CAM software.
g>Real time software.
h>Transaction processing software.
i>Web application software.
j>Driver and utility software.
k>Security software.
l>Scientific software.
m>Encyclopedia entertainment and educational software.

These are a set of programs which helps users to perform outline tasks. Tasks performed by utility programs include copying files from one disk to another, file maintenance, sorting records, merging files, printing the memory contents, file manipulation, virus scanner and remover.

Feb 22, 2013




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Feb 21, 2013


Keyboard Shortcuts:

F1                             = Help.

F3                             = Toggle off/on search panel.
F4                             = Pull down address bar.
F5                             = Refresh current page.
F6                             = Move focus to address bar.
F11                           = Toggle on/off full screen mode.
Alt+Left Arrow         = Go back on history.
Alt+Right Arrow       = Go forward on history.
Ctrl+A                      = Select all.
Ctrl+B                      = Favorites.
Ctrl+C                      = Copy selected.
Ctrl+E                      = Search panel.
Ctrl+F                      = Find.

Ctrl+H                      = Toggle history panel.
Ctrl+I                        = Toggle favorites panel.
Ctrl+O                       = Open file.
Ctrl+N                       = Open new browser window.
Ctrl+P                        = Print current page/frame.
Ctrl+R                        = Refresh.
Esc                             = Stop(while page is loading).
Ctrl+Enter                  = Auto complete a url address.
Ctrl+D                        = Add the current page to favorite.

Mouse Shortcuts:

Double click on a word                    = Select the word.

Triple click                                       = Select entire line.
Wheel click                                      = Activate the smooth scrolling.
Hold Ctrl+Scroll wheel forward       = Increase font size.
Hold Ctrl+Scroll wheel backward    = Decrease font size.
Click one point then hold shift & click another = Create a selection from the two points.

Internet   Explorer

Feb 18, 2013


1.CD-ROM stands for
Answer:  Compact disk read only memory.

2.IBM 1401 is
Answer: Second generation computer.

3.MSI stands for
Answer: Medium scale integrated circuits.

4.The capacity of 3.5 inch floppy disk is
Answer: 1.44 MB.

5.WAN stands for           

Answer: Wide area network.

6.EBCDIC stands for
Answer: Extended binary coded decimal interchange code.

7.BCD is
Answer: Binary coded decimal.

8.One first generation computer is
Answer: EDSAC.

9.Chief component of first generation computer was
Answer: Vacuum tubes and valves.

10.FORTRAN is 
Answer: Formula translation.

11.Second generation computers were developed during
Answer:1956 to 1965.

12.The computer size was very large in
Answer: First generation.

13.Microprocessors as switching devices are for which generation computers
Answer: Fourth generation.

14.Which of the devices can be used to directly image printed text.
Answer: OCR.

15.The output quality of a printer is measured by
Answer: Dot per sq. inch.

16.In analog computer 
Answer: Input is never converted to digital form.

17.In latest generation computers, the instructions are executed
Answer: Sequentially and parallel.

18.Who designed the first electronics computer?
Answer: J. Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly.

19. Who invented the high level language?
Answer: Dennis M. Ritchie.

20.When did arch rivals IBM and apple computers inc. decide to join hands?
Answer: 1991.

21.Human beings are referred to as homosapiens, which device is called sillico sapiens?
Answer: Computer.

22.An error in software or hardware is called a bug, what is the alternative computer jargon for it?
Answer: Glitch.

23.Modern computer are very reliable but they are not
Answer: Infallible.

24.What is the name of the display feature that highlights are of the screen which requires operator attention?
Answer: Reverse video.

25.Personal computers use a number of chips mounted on a main circuit board, what is the common name for such boards?
Answer: Motherboard.

26.A computer program that converts an entire program into machine language is called
Answer: Compiler.

27.A computer program that translates one program instructions at a time into machine language is called
Answer: Interpreter.

28.The ALU of a computer responds to the commands coming from
Answer: Control section.

29.All modern computer operate on
Answer: Data.

30.Instructions and memory address are represented by
Answer: Binary codes.

31.What is the latest write once optical storage media?
Answer: CD-ROM disk.

32.The most important advantage of a video disk is
Answer: Potential capacity.

33.What is the name of the computer terminal which gives paper printout?
Answer: Hard copy terminal.

34.The two kinds of main memory are?
Answer: RAM and ROM.

35.Which of the languages is more suited to a structure program?
Answer: Pascal.

36.A computer assisted method for the recording and analyzing of existing or hypothetical systems is
Answer: Data flow.

37.The brain of any computer system is
Answer: CPU.

38.Which of the computer language is used for artificial intelligence?
Answer: PROLOG.

39.The tracks on a disk which can be accessed without repositioning the R/W heads is 
Answer: Cylinder.

40.A section of code to which control is transferred when a processor is interrupted is known as
Answer: M.

41.Which part interprets program instructions and initiate control operations?
Answer:Control unit.

42.The binary system uses powers of
Answer: 2.

43.A computer program that converts assembly language to machine language is
Answer: Assembler.

44.The time required for the fetching and execution of one simple machine instruction is
Answer: CPU cycle.

45.The time for which a piece of equipment operates is called
Answer: Effective time.

46.Binary numbers need more places for counting because
Answer: Binary base is small.

47.Any type of storage that is used for holding information between steps in its processing is
Answer: Intermediate storage.

48.Which type of system puts the user into direct conversation with the computer through a keyboard?
Answer: Interactive computer.

49.The term referring to evacuating the content of some part of the machine is known as
Answer: Dump.

50.A single packet on a data link is known as
Answer: Frame.

51.The process of communicating with a file from a terminal is
Answer: Interrogation.

52.A common boundary between two systems is called
Answer: Interface.

53.Which method is used to connect a remote computer?
Answer: Dialup.

54.The symbols used in an assembly language are
Answer: Mnemonics.

55.Which is a non-standard version of a computing language?
Answer: Army.

56.A memory that holds micro programs is
Answer: ROM.

57.RAM is used as a short memory because it is
Answer: Volatile.

58.Which is a device that changes information into digital form?
Answer: Digitizer.

59.Which network is a packet switching network?
Answer: Euronet.

60.Symbolic languages were developed in
Answer: 1950.

61.Where have the program and data to be located before the ALU and control unit of a computer can operate on it?
Answer: Internal memory.

62.Control unit of a digital computer is often called the
Answer: Nerve center.

63.The software used to convert source program instructions to object instruction is known as
Answer: Language processor.

64.What is meant by a dedicated computer?
Answer: Which is assigned one and only one task.

65.The ALU of a computer normally contains a number of high speed storage elements called
Answer: Registers.

66.The first electronic digital computer contained?
Answer: Electronic valves.

67.Name the two persons who were the first to develop a model of the microprocessor chip
Answer: Victor Poor and Harry Pyle

68.EBCDIC can code up to how many different characters?
Answer: 256.

69.The memory which is ultraviolet light erasable and electrically programmable is
Answer: EPROM.

70.What is the name of the computer which was first used for programming and playing of music?
Answer: ELLIAC.

Feb 3, 2013


The motherboard is a piece of fiberglass, usually dark green in color. Chips are soldered to it and then connected by tiny copper wires which look likes little roads all over the motherboard.
It is the main piece of circuitry inside PC. It is important things inside the PC. The following electronic parts are present on the motherboard.

* Microprocessor.
* Random access memory(RAM)chips.
* Read only memory(ROM)chips.
* Expansion slots and special expansion cards that plug into them.
* Other support circuitry.

           Electricity is supplied through everything via a thin metal sheet sandwiched in the middle of motherboard itself. Of course, to making it practical, you need a power supply unit, monitor, keyboard, disk drives and so on. The function of various units on the  motherboard are discussed below.

1. Normally a motherboard supports a single type of CPU and few types of memories.
2. Motherboard varies greatly in supporting various types of components.
3. Hard disks, sound cards, video cards have to compatible with motherboard to function properly.
4. Motherboards, cases and power supplies must be compatible to work properly together.

This is the main chip, which controls the arithmetic calculations and logical operations in the computer. The type of the machine depends on the microprocessor used. The following table lists the popular codes assigned to microprocessor along with technical details associated with each.

Random Access Memory(RAM)Chips:
It is a component of the motherboard close to the microprocessor. RAM exists as a series of tiny chips called RAM chips. They are in the form of a set of chips on the motherboard, which serve as the primary base memory of the computer. The base memory comprises of 640 KB capacity or 5 chip each of 128 KB capacity. You can add more to the computer by plugging in more RAM chips either on the motherboard itself or as accessory memory expansion cards. It
contains the instructions that the microprocessor tapes through to execute a program. The microprocessor, in turn, stores the information in the memory that it develops while executing the program. There are four types of memory in a PC. They are conventional, high memory area, extended and expanded.

1.Conventional Memory:
Most computers can accommodate upto 640 KB of conventional memory. Programs can use conventional memory without the special instructions needed to use other types of memory. MS-DOS itself uses some of conventional memory. The device drives and commands listed in the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT use additional conventional memory.

2.High Memory Area:
Most systems have 386 KB of space called the high memory area. This area is immediately adjacent of the 640 KB of conventional memory. The high memory is not considered as part of the total memory of you computer because programs can not store information in this area. This area is normally reserved for running your system hardware, such as your monitor. MS-DOS can use into this memory.

3.Extended Memory:
It is available only on systems with 80286 or higher processors as they have advanced memory accessing and management capabilities. Dos programs to access the extended memory beyond the 640 KB barrier. An extended memory manager has to be installed which is HIMEM.SYS.

4.Expanded Memory:
Expanded memory is slower than extended memory because the window size in conventional memory is small and there is high overhead in shifting the window to view different areas of memory.

1. Intel
2. Asus
3. Abit
4. Aopen
5. Gigabyte
6. Biostar
7. MSI


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