Extension Name of Some Files

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Windows Operating System

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Data Communication

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Some Abbreviations In Computer

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

What Is The Internet

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Nov 24, 2012

GENERATION OF COMPUTERS

INTRODUCTION: The first electronic computer was designed and built at the university of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology.

Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors, memories and I/O units.

FIRST GENERATION(1945-55):

Example- ENIAC = Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator.
               EDSAC = Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator.
               EDVAC = Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic              Computer.
              UNIVAC = Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701.
              IBM-650 etc.

Technology used:  Vacuum tube.

FIRST GENERATION COMPUTER

FEATURES:
1. Vacuum tubes were used- basic arithmetic operations took few milliseconds.
2. Bulky
3. Consume more power with limited performance.
4. High cost.               
5. Uses assembly language- to prepare programs. These were translated into machine level language for execution.
6. Mercury delay line memories and electrostatic memories were used.
7. Fixed point arithmetic was used.
8. 100 to 1000 fold increase in speed relative to the earlier mechanical and relay based electromechanical technology.
9. Punched cards and paper tape were invented to feed programs and data and to get results.
10. Magnetic tape/magnetic drum were used as secondary memory.
11. Mainly used for scientific computations

Advantages

1. Only vacuum tubes are required.

Disadvantages

1. Generates heat.
2. Airconditioning required.
3. Large in size.
4. Unreliable.
5. Constant maintenance required.



SECOND GENERATION(1955-65):

Example-IBM 7030 , Digital Data Corporation's PDP 1/5/8 , Honeywell 400. CDC-1604, CDC-3600, UNIVAC-1108 etc.

Technology used:  Transistor.

SECOND GENERATION COMPUTER

FEATURES:
1. Transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes.
2. Small in size                                                                                3. Lesser power consumption and better performance.
4. Lower cost.
5. Magnetic ferrite  core memories were used as main memory which is a random-access nonvolatile memory.
6. Magnetic tapes and magnetic disks were used as secondary memory.
7. Hardware for floating point arithmetic operations was developed.
8. Index registers were introduced which increased flexibility of programming.
9. High level languages such as FORTRAN , COBOL etc. Were used- compilers were developed to translate the high-level program into corresponding assembly language program which was then translated into machine language.
10. Separate input-output processors were developed that could operate in parallel with CPU.
11. Punched cards continued during this period also.
12. 1000 fold increase in speed.
13. Increasingly used in business, industry and commercial organizations for preparation of payroll , inventory control , marketing , production planning , research , scientific and engineering analysis and design etc. 

Advantages

1. Less heat generation.
2. Smaller in size compared to first generation.
3. More reliable.
4. Faster in action.

Disadvantages

1. Airconditioning required.
2. Maintenance required.



THIRD GENERATION(1965-75):

Example- System 360 Mainframe from IBM, PDP-8 Minicomputer from Digital Equipment Corporation, Honeywell-6000 series, TDC-316 etc.

Technology used:  Integrated Circuit(IC).

THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER

FEATURES:
1. ICs were used.
2. Small scale integration and medium scale integration technology were implemented in CPU, I/O processors etc.
3. Smaller and better performance.
4. Comparatively lesser cost.
5. Faster processors.
6. In the beginning magnetic core memories were used. Later they were replaced by semiconductors memories.
7. Introduced microprogramming.
8. Microprogramming , parallel processing , multiprogramming , multi-user system etc were introduced.
9. Operating system software were introduced .
10. Cache and virtual memories were introduced .
11. High level languages were standardized by ANSI. Example- ANSI FORTRAN, ANSI COBOL etc.
12. Database management , multi-user application , online systems like closed loop process control , airline reservation , interactive query systems , automatic industrial control etc emerged during this period.

Advantages

1. Smaller in size.
2. Lower heat generation.
3. Less power requirement.
4. More reliable than first and second generation.
5. Faster than first and second generation.
6. Low maintenance cost.
7. Easily portable.
8. Cheaper commercial production.

Disadvantages

1. Manufacturing difficulty.
2. Airconditioning required.



FOURTH GENERATION(1975-89):

Example- Intel's 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486..... , Motorola's 68000, 68030, 68040 , Apple 2 , CRAY 1/2/X/MP, DEC-10, STAT-1000, PDP-11 etc.

Technology used:  Large and very large scale integrated circuit(LSIC and VLSIC).

FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTER

FEATURES:
1. Microprocessors were introduced as CPU- complete processors and large section of main memory could be implemented in a single chip.
2. Tens of thousands of transistors can be placed in a single chip.
3. CRT screen , laser and ink jet printers , scanners etc were developed.   
4. Semiconductor memory chips were used as the main memory.
5. Secondary memory was composed of hard disks- floppy disks and magnetic tapes were used for backup memory.
6. Parallelism , pipelining cache memory and virtual memory were applied in a better way.
7. LAN and WANS were developed .
8. Introduced C language and Unix OS.
9. Introduced graphical user interface.
10. Less power consumption .
11. High performance , lower cost and very compact
12. Much increase in the speed of operation.

Advantages

1. Smaller in size.
2. Portable.
3. No airconditioning required.
4. Practically maintenance free.
5. Cheaper and reliable.
6. Less power requirement.
7. General purpose and much more cheaper.

Disadvantages

1. Complex software.
2. Highly sophisticated technology required for manufacturing LSIC and VLSI chips.



FIFTH GENERATION(1989 - PRESENT):

Example- IBM Notebooks, Pentium - 1/2/3/4/dual core/quad core..., SUN work stations, Origin 2000, PARAM 10000,IBM SP/2, Notebook, Ultrabook, Chromebook, Laptop etc.

Technology used:  KIPS(knowledge information processing system) and PROLOG(programming in logic language).

FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER

FEATURES:
1. Generation number beyond  IV , have been used occasionally  to describe some current computer system that have a dominant organizational or application driven feature.
2. Computers based on artificial intelligence are available.
3. Computers use extensive parallel processing , multiple pipelines , multiple processors etc.
4. Massive parallel machines and extensively distributed system connected by communication networks fall in this category.
5. Introduced ULSI technology- Intel's Pentium 4 microprocessor contains 55 million transistors millions of components on a single IC  chip.
6. Superscalar processors , vector processors , SIMD processors , 32 bit micro controllers and embedded processors ,digital signal processors etc have been developed.
7. Memory chips  2 GB , hard disk drivers 360 GB  and optical disks 27 GB are available.
8. Object oriented language like JAVA  suitable for internet programming has been developed.
9. Portable note book computers introduced.
10. Storage technology advanced- large main memory and disk storage available.
11. Introduced world wide web.
12. New operating systems developed- Windows XP/7/8....,LINUX etc.
13. Got hot pluggable features- which enable a failed component to be replaced with a new one without the need to shutdown the system , allowing the up time of the system to be very high.
14. The recent development in the application of internet is the Grid technology which is still in its upcoming stage.
15. Quantum mechanism and nanotechnology will radically change the phase of computers.

Advantages

1. Will work parallely.
2. Will have capability of performing multiple task at a time.
3. Will have capability of knowledge processing.
4. Will be a knowledge information processing system.
5. Will process basic intelligence.

Disadvantages

1. Not yet known.

Nov 22, 2012

GLOSSARY OF BASIC TERMS

1>APPLICATION:  
Another name of software or program. Some common types of applications are word processors, spreadsheets, databases etc.

2>BUG:
A mistake or unexpected occurrence in a piece of software or hardware.
GLOSSARY

3>CLIPBOARD: 

The area of the mac's memory that holds what you last "cut" or "copied". You can past the contents of your clipboard into documents.

4>CONTROL PANEL: 

An accessory that allows you to set things like how sounds, monitor, backgrounds and how fast the insertion point blinks.

5>CPU(central processing unit): 

The central processing unit is made up of circuitry and computer chips, which perform the computer's calculations. The CPU is often what people call the box in which the all of the computer's circuitry is housed.

6>DESKTOP: 

The computer's interface uses a desktop metaphor. The desktop is the gray or colored background you see on the screen when you start your computer. It is the place where you do your work by handling icons and working with pictures that represent your files, folders and disks.

7>E-MAIL: 

Electronic mail allows a computer user to send messages instantaneously to another user's electronic mailbox. To send an e-mail to someone, you must have their e-mail address and you must be connected to a network.

8>FILE MENU: 

In all applications, the file menu contains commands for opening, saving, printing and closing documents, quitting the application etc.

9>FLOPPY DISK: 

A magnetic storage medium about 3.25 in size, which can be recorded, erased and used over and over again. A floppy disk holds can hold 1.4 megabytes of information.

10>HARDWARE: 

The physical components of a computer system. Those things which you can touch.

11>HARDDRIVE:  

A rigid, usually non-removable disk or the disk drive that houses it. Hard disks store much more data and access it much more quickly than floppy disks.

12>LAUNCHING: 

Opening an application.

13>MEMORY: 

The retention of information electronically, on chips. See a difference with storage. There are two main types of memory: RAM, which is used for the short term retention of information and ROM, which is used store programs that are seldom changed.

14>MENU BAR: 

The horizontal area across the top of the screen that contains the menu titles.

15>MEGAHERTZ(MHz): 

One million cycles per second. a unit of measurement to compare clock speed of computers. The higher the number, the faster the computer.

16>MODEM: 

A device that adapts a computer to a voice communications(telephone) network. The modem converts the digital pulses from a computer to audio tones, which can be transmitted by a telephone system.

17>NETWORKING: 

Two or more computers and associated devices that are connected by communications hard wire(phone wire,network cable, satellite etc.).

18>PASTING: 

Inserting something into a document from the clipboard by choosing paste from the edit menu.

19>REBOOT: 

To "reboot" means to restart the computer.

20>SOFTWARE: 

The instructions that tell a computer what to do. Also called programs or applications.

21>STORAGE: 

The long term retention of information magnetically or optically. It persists after you turn your computer off. Compare this with memory.

22>SYSTEM FOLDER: 

A standard folder on mac hard drives that contains the system file, the finder and other system software.

23>ZIP DISK: 

Just like a floppy disk, except slightly thicker and more durable. A ZIP DISK can hold up to 100 megabytes of information. This is convenient for working with large files, especially graphics.

24>OS: 

The basic software that controls a computer's operation.

25>INTERNET: 

Established in the 1960s by the US government, the internet was developed so that government agencies and universities could link research centers in response the perceived notion that the Soviet Union was becoming more advanced in the space race. The internet was created as a "de-centralized" network, meaning that there is no one place that makes up the internet. This was done to make sure the internet survived a nuclear war. Today, the internet is a vast collection of e-mail, usenet groups, FTP sites and web sites, with millions upon millions of users from around the world.

26>BROWSER: 

A program that lets you read information(HTML documents) and navigate the world wide web.

27>CHAT: 

A system in which people can communicate by typing messages. Unlike e-mail messages, chat messages are sent and received as you type.

28>DOMAIN: 

A name given to a host computer on the internet.

29>DRAG: 

Pointing at an item on the screen, clicking with the left mouse button and while holding the mouse button down, dragging the item to another part of the screen.

30>HELP/FAQ: 

An option on most web sites that gives instructions on how to use the site. It is sometimes called  'about this site' or 'FAQ' (frequently asked questions).

31>WEB DIRECTORY: 

A directory(list) of web sites that are selected, categorized and organized by people.

32>SEARCH ENGINE:  

A tool that uses various electronic techniques to visit, search , collect and organize data from web sites. Google,Yahoo, Bing, Ask search engines to help you search.

33>URL: 

Proper term for referring to web page address.

34>ATTACHMENT: 

A computer file electronically stapled to an e-mail message and sent along with it.

35>BANDWITH: 

The capacity of a network connection. Bandwith determines how much data can be sent along the networked wires. Bandwith is particularly important for internet connections, since greater bandwith also means faster downloads.

36>CACHE:  

A small data memory storage area that a computer can use to instantly re-access data instead of re-reading the data from the original source, such as a hard drive. Browsers use a cache to store web pages so that the user may view them again without reconnecting to the web.

37>CHIP:  

A tiny wafer of silicon containing miniature electric circuits that can store millions of bits of information.

38>CRASH:

A software or hardware problem that causes information to be lost or the computer to malfunction. Sometimes a crash can cause permanent damage to a computer.

39>COOKIE:

A text file sent by a web server that is stored on the hard drive of a computer and relays back to the web server things about the user, his or her computer, and/or his or her computer activities.

40>DATABASE:

A collection of similar information stored in a file, such as a database of addresses. This information may be created and stored in a database management system.

41>DEBUG:

To find and correct equipment defects or program malfunctions.

42>DEFAULT:

The pre-defined configuration of a system or an application. In most programs, the defaults can be changed to reflect personal preferences.

43>E-BOOK:

An electronic reading device that allows a person to view digitally stored reading materials.

44>DSL:

Digital subscriber line. A method of connecting to the internet via a phone line. A DSL connection uses copper telephone lines but is able to relay data at much higher speeds than modems and does not interfere with telephone use.

45>FIREWALL:

A set of security programs that protect a computer from outside interference or access via the internet

46>FTP:

FTP means file transfer protocol. A format and set of rules for transferring files from a host to a remote computer.

47>HOME:

The main page of a web site used to greet visitors, provide information about the site or to direct the viewer to other pages on the site.

48>HACKER:

A person with technical expertise who experiments with computer systems to determine how to develop additional features. Hackers are occasionally requested by system administrators to try and break into systems via a network to test security. The term hacker is sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably with cracker. A hacker is called a white hat and a cracker a black hat.

49>MULTIMEDIA:

Software programs that combine text and graphics with sound, video and animation. A multimedia PC contains the hardware to support these capabilities.

50>PALM:
A hand - held computer.

51>PDF:

Portable document format. A format presented by adobe acrobat that allows documents to be shared over a variety of operating systems. Documents can contain words and pictures and be formatted to have electronic links to other parts of the document or to places on the web.

52>PROGRAM:

A precise series of instructions written in a computer language that tells the computer what to do and how to do it. Programs are also called software or applications.

53>SERVER:

A computer that shares its resources and information with other computers, called clients on a network.

54>SURFING:

Exploring the internet.

55>STREAMING:

Taking packets of information (sound or visual) from the internet and storing it in temporary files to allow it to play in continuous flow.

56>WEBCAM:

A video camera, computer setup that takes live images and sends them to a web browser.



Nov 19, 2012

LEARN MS EXCEL - 2007(PRACTICAL)

                               MS EXCEL- 2007(PRACTICAL)
SPREADSHEET

1>TO OPEN MS EXCEL: 
    Start---All Programs---Microsoft Office---Microsoft Office Excel 2007.
or: Start---Run---Type(Excel)---Ok.

2>TO CHANGE CELL COLOR:

    Select the cell---Home---Fill Color---Select a Color.

3>TO ADD BORDER TO CELL:

    Select the Cell---Home---Border---Select(All Border).

4>WRAP TEXT:

    Adjust the Cell---Home---Wrap Text.

5>ORIENTATION OF TEXT:

    Select the Cell---Home---Orientation---Select a Orientation.

6>MERGE CELL:

    Select the Cell---Home---Merge and Center.

7>ARITHMETIC FUNCTION:


     A>SUM:               = Cell+Cell+Cell+Enter.
                            = Sum(Cell,Cell,Cell)+Enter.
                            = Sum(Cell:Cell)+Enter

   B>MULTIPLY:     = Cell*Cell+Enter.


   C>DIVIDE:          = Cell/Cell+Enter.


   D>SUBTRACT:    = Cell-Cell+Enter.


8>TO INSERT NEW ROW OR COLUMN:

    Right click on the row or column which previous you want to insert new one---Home---Insert.

9>TO DELETE ROW OR COLUMN:

    Select the row or column which you want to delete---Home---Delete.

10>CREATE A CHART:

      Select the database---Insert---Select a chart type---Select a design.

11>TO CHANGE CHART DESIGN:

      Select the chart---Design---More---Select a design.

12>ARITHMETIC FUNCTION:

     Maximum number :
      =Max(Cell,Cell ....)Enter
      =Max(Cell:Cell)Enter

   Minimum number :

    =Min(Cell,Cell ....)Enter
    =Min(Cell:Cell)Enter

13>VALIDATION LIST:

      Select the cell---Data---Data validation---Settings---Allow(List)---Type your list(Using Comma)---Ok.

14>CUSTOM LIST:

      Customize quick access toolbar---More---Commands---Popular---Edit custom list---Type your list(Using Comma)---Add---Ok---Ok.

15>FILL SERIES:

      Enter a value---Select that cell---Home---Fill---Series(Series in)Row or Column---Select(Liner)---Enter step value---Enter stop value---Ok.

16>FILTER:

      Select the database---Home---Sort and filter---Filter.

17>TO INSERT COMMENT TO ANY CELL:

      Select the cell---Review---New comment---Type your comment.

18>TRACE PRECEDENT:

      Select the cell that contains formula---Formulas---Trace precedent.

19>TEXT FUNCTION:

      concatenote:
    =Concatenote(Cell,Cell)Enter
    =Concatenote(Cell,"Space",Cell,"Space",Cell)Enter.



Nov 18, 2012

LEARN MS EXCEL -2007(THEORY)

MS EXCEL 2007
                   

COMPUTER VIRUSES

                                 COMPUTER VIRUSES   
   
WHAT IS THE COMPUTER VIRUS: A computer virus is a program or piece of code that operates by attaching itself to some other program or downloaded file.When this program starts, the virus code unintentionally runs,replicates itself and infects other programs or documents on the PC.A computer virus spreads mainly via e-mail attachments,downloadable files from the internet or floppy discs.Virus infection can be prevented  by installing anti-virus software,among other strategies, some of which are outlined in this advice sheet.

A computer virus can seriously damage or completely destroy files or software on a computer.The result is that files may be lost permanently,educational programs may not function correctly or the overall performance of a computer may be slowed down. The process involved in repairing the damage can be time consuming and expensive.

COMMON VIRUS INFECTION SYMPTOMS: Viruses can effect your computer in many ways.Although there are no telltale signs of a virus,there are a few symptoms that may suggest that your computer has a virus -----

1> Unexplained messages appear on the screen.
2> Specific files are mysteriously deleted.
3> Unknown files are added to a disc.
4> An entire disc or drive is erased.
5> The keyboard does not work properly.
6> Unexplained modifications are made to data or documents.
7> Application software seems to be changed.
8> Operating system software appears to be modified.
9> Unexplained printing problems occur.

TYPES OF VIRUSES:  Some of the most common types of computer viruses are .......


A>TROJAN HORSE: A Trojan horse program has the appearance of having a useful and desired function.While it may advertise its activity after launching,this information is not apparent to the user beforehand.Secretly the program performs other, undesired functions.A Trojan horse neither replicates nor copies itself,but causes damage or compromises the security of the computer.A Trojan horse must be sent by someone or carried by another program and may arrive in the form of a joke program or software of some sort.The malicious functionality of a Trojan horse may be anything undesirable for a computer user,including data destruction or compromising a system by providing a means for another computer to gain access,thus bypassing normal access controls.


B>WORMS: A Worm is a program that makes and facilitates the distribution of copies of itself, for example,from one disk drive to another or by copying itself using e-mail or another transport mechanism.The worm may do damage and compromise the security of the computer.It may arrive via exploitation of a system vulnerability or by clicking on an infected e-mail.


C>BOOT SECTOR VIRUS: A virus which attaches itself to the first part of the hard disk that is read by the computer upon bootup.These are normally spread by floppy disks.


D>MACRO VIRUS: Macro viruses are viruses that use another applications macro programming language to distribute themselves.They infect documents such as ms word or ms excel and are typically spread to other similar documents.


E>MEMORY RESIDENT VIRUS: Memory resident viruses reside in a computers volatile memory(RAM).They are initiated from a virus which runs on the computer and they stay in memory after its initiating program closes.


F>ROOTKIT VIRUS: A Rootkit virus is an undetectable virus which attempts to allow someone to gain control of a computer system.The term Rootkit comes from the Linux administrator root user.These viruses are usually installed by Trojans and are normally disguised as operating system files.


G>POLYMORPHIC VIRUS: A Polymorphic virus not only replicates itself by creating multiple files of itself,but it also changes its digital signature every time it replicates.This makes it difficult for less sophisticated antivirus software to detect.


H>LOGIC BOMBS/TIME BOMBS: These are viruses which are programmed to initiate at a specific date or when a specific event occurs.Some examples are a virus which deletes your photos on Halloween ,or a virus which deletes a database table if a certain employee gets fired.



WHAT KIND OF DAMAGE CAN COMPUTER VIRUSES DO: 

1>Some viruses can delete or change files.Some viruses will delete all of your documents or even reformat your hard drive,making your computer unusable.

2>Some viruses can release confidential information like credit card information,account numbers and passwords by emailing it to random email addresses or the address of the virus writer.


3>Some viruses can slow down your system dramatically.


4>Some viruses plant monitoring software or change security settings that allow hackers to enter your computer without you knowing about it and steal information or control it.


5>Other viruses , like the internet worm that hit recently,also can have widespread effects on computer networks and the internet.



PREVENTING VIRUS INFECTION:


a>Install and regularly update anti-virus. This in conjunction with good housekeeping,can greatly reduce the threat caused by computer viruses.


b>All floppy disks or other removal media,should remain within the confines of the computer room.It is not advisable to let students bring them home or return with them to school.However,if this occurs they should be scanned immediately using anti-virus software.Floppies should also be write protected.


c>Files should be saved to a designated hard drive where incoming files can be scanned automatically by anti-virus software.


d>When the sender of an e-mail is not known to the recipient,avoid clicking on attachments containing an executable file.


e>Creating back-ups of files won't directly prevent virus infection, but it may speed up the recovery process in the event of a virus erasing or damaging files.


SOME GOOD ANTIVIRUSES:

a> Kaspersky Antivirus.
b> Bit Defender Antivirus.
c> Trend Micro Antivirus.
d> Norton Antivirus.
e> Avast Antivirus.
f> Mcafree Antivirus.
g> Panda Pro Antivirus.
h> Zone Alarm Antivirus.
i> ESET NOD30 Antivirus.
j> AVG Antivirus.
k> F- Secure Antivirus.

                           

                          

Nov 17, 2012

LEARN MS WORD - 2007(PRACTICAL)

                                  MS WORD - 2007(PRACTICAL):
Application window of MS Word

1>TO OPEN MS WORD 2007:
    Start---All Programs---Microsoft Office---Microsoft Office Word 2007.
or   Start---Run---Type(Winword)---Ok.

2>TO VIEW AS NORMAL/ZOOM:
   Select the text---View---Zoom---Select a zoom size---Ok.

3>TO CHANGE THE VIEW OF PAGE:
    View---Select(print layout or full screen reading).

4>TO CREATE NEW BLANK DOCUMENT:
    Office button---New---Blank document---Create.

5>TO SAVE ANY DOCUMENT:
    Office button---Save---Select a location to save---Type a file name---Save.

6>TO OPEN EXISTING DOCUMENT:
    Office button---Open---Select location---Select the file or type the file name---Open.

7>TO CHANGE FONT:
    Select the text---Home---Font---Select a font.

8>TO CHANGE FONT SIZE:
    Select the text---Home---Font size---Select or enter the size.

9>BOLD:
    Select the text---Home--- Bold.

10>ITALIC:
      Select the text---Home---Italic.

11>UNDERLINE:
      Select the text---Underline---Select on underline style.

12>UNDERLINE COLOR:
      Select the text---Home---Underline---Underline color---Select a color.

13>FONT COLOR:
     Select the text---Home---Font color---Select a color.

14>TEXT HIGHLIGHT COLOR:
     Select the text---Home---Text highlight color---Select a color.

15>ALIGNMENT:
      Select the line---Home---Select alignment(Left,Center,Right or Justify).

16>LINE SPACING:
      Select the line---Home---Line spacing---Select a spacing point.

17>PARAGRAPH SPACING:
     Select the paragraph---Home---Line spacing---Select(Add/Remove space before/after paragraph).

18>BULLET:
      Select the line---Home---Bullet---Select a bullet.

19>TO DEFINE NEW BULLET:
      Select the line---Home---Bullet---Define new bullet---Select(Picture or Symbol)---Select a picture or symbol---Ok---Ok
.
20>CHANGE CASE:
      Select the text---Home---Change case---Select a case.

21>SUBSCRIPT:
      Select the text---Home---Subscript.

22>SUPERSCRIPT:
      Select the text---Home---Superscript.

23>NUMBERING:
      Select the line---Home---Numbering---Select a numbering.

24>TO FIND:
      Home---Find---Type the text which you want to find---Find next.

25>REPLACE:
      Home---Replace---Find what(Type the text which you want to change)---Replace with(Type the text which you want to set in replacement of the old one)---Replace all.

26>TEXT BORDER:
      Select the text---Home---Border---Border and shading---Select a border style---Select border width---Select border color---Apply to(Text)---Ok.

27>PARAGRAPH BORDER:
      Select the paragraph---Home---Border---Border and shading---Select border style---Select border width---Select border color---Apply to(Paragraph)---Ok.

28>TO INSERT PICTURE:
      Select the place---Insert---Picture---Select the location---Select the picture---Insert.

29>TO INSERT CLIPART:
     Select the place---Insert---Clipart---Type your category---Select the clipart.

30>TO ADD FRAME TO PICTURE OR CLIPART :
      Select the picture or clipart---Format---More---Select a frame.

31>TO CHANGE THE FRAME OR BORDER COLOR:
      Select the picture---Format---Picture border---Select a color.

32>TO ADD PICTURE EFFECT:
      Select the picture---Format---Picture effect---Select category---Select effect.

33>TO CHANGE PICTURE COLOR:
      Select the Picture---Format---Recolor---Select a color.

34>TO INSERT SHAPE:
      Insert---Shapes---Select a shape---Draw the shape.

35>TO CHANGE SHAPE COLOR:
      Select the shape---Format---Shape fill---Select a color.

36>TO CHANGE SHAPE BORDER COLOR:
      Select the shape---Format---Shape border---Select a color.

37>TO CHANGE SHAPE BORDER WIDTH:
      Select the shape---Format---Shape border---Weight---Select a thickness.

38>TO INSERT WORD ART:
      Select the place---Insert---Word art---Type your text---Ok.

39>TO CHANGE WORD ART COLOR:
      Select the word art---Format---Shape fill---Select a color.

40>TO CHANGE WORD ART SHAPE:
      Select the word art---Format---Change shape---Select a shape.

41>TO CHANGE WORD ART DESIGN:
      Select the word art---Format---More---Select a word art design.

42>TO EDIT WORD ART TEXT:
      Select the word art---Format---Edit text---Change the text---Ok.

43>BOOKMARK:
      Select the text---Insert---Bookmark---Type a bookmark name---Add.

44>TO INSERT SYMBOL:
      Select the place---Symbol---More symbol---Select a symbol---Insert---Close.

45>HYPERLINK:
      Select the text---Insert---Hyperlink---Create new document---Type a document name---Select(Edit the new document now or later)---Ok---Type in the new document---Save new document---Close the new document---In the main document now save it.

46>DROP CAP:
      Select the first letter of the paragraph---Insert---Drop cap---Select a cap.

47>PAGE NUMBER:
      Insert---Page number---Select(Top/Bottom of page)---Select an alignment.

48>TO INSERT OBJECT:
      Select the place---Insert---Object---Create from file---Browse---Select the location---Insert---Link to file---Ok.

49>TO CHANGE PAGE SIZE:
      Page layout---Size---Select a size or more paper size---Change the width and height---Ok.

50>TO CHANGE PAGE ORIENTATION:
      Page layout---Orientation---Select an orientation(Portrait or Landscape).

51>TO CHANGE PAGE COLOR:
      Page layout---Page color---Select a color.

52>TO CHANGE PAGE MARGIN:
      Page layout---Margins---Custom margin---Change the margin---Ok.

53>TO ADD PAGE BORDER:
      Page layout---Page border---Select a border style---Select border width---Select border color---Apply to---Ok.

54>TO ADD COLUMN TO PAGE:
      Page layout---Columns---Select number of columns.

55>MACRO:
      View---Macros---Record macros---Type a macro name---Keyboard---Press a shortcut key---Assign---Close---Type your text---View---Macros---Stop recording.

56>TO INSERT DATE AND TIME:
      Select the place---Insert---Date and time---Select date or time---Ok.

57>TO INSERT FOOTNOTE:
      Select the text---References---Insert footnote---Type your note.

58>SPELLING AND GRAMMAR:
      Select the text---Review---Spelling and grammar(F7)---Select the suggestion---Change/Ignore.

59>TO PROTECT YOUR DOCUMENT WITH PASSWORD:
       Office button---Save---Select a location---Type a file name---Tools---General options---Type your password---Ok---Retype the password---Ok---Save.

60>MAIL MERGE:
      Mailing---Start mail merge---Letters---Type your letter---Select recipients---Type new list---Customize column---Delete the unwanted field---Add the wanted field---Ok---Type your list---Ok---Type a list name---Save---Select the blank field---Insert merge field---Select the field you want to merge---Finish and merge---Edit individual document---All---Ok.

61>TO VIEW RULER OPTIONS:
      View--- Ruler.

62>TO VIEW GRID LINES:
      View---Grid lines.

63>TO INSERT TABLE:
       Select the place---Insert---Insert table---Select number of rows and columns---Ok.



Nov 16, 2012

LEARN MS WORD - 2007(THEORY)

MS WORD:   
Microsoft word is an electronic word processing application. MS Word is an application software comes under the package of Microsoft Office.

SOME FEATURES OF MS WORD:


1>FONT: This option is use to change the font face of the selected text.

2>FONT SIZE: This option is use to change the font size of the selected text.

3>FONT COLOR: This option is use to change the color of the  selected text.

4>CHANGE CASE: Use to vary the case of any text ---
  a>Sentence Case= Capitalize the first letter of each sentence.
  b>Upper Case= Make all the letters to capital.
  c>Lower Case= Make all the letters to small letter.
  d>Capitalize each word= Capitalize the first letter of each word to capital.
  e>Toggle Case= Alter the case.
MS WORDPAD

5>SUBSCRIPT: Create a small text below baseline.


6>SUPERSCRIPT: Create a small text above upper line.

7>LINE SPACING: Adjust the space between two lines.

8>PARAGRAPH SPACING: Adjust the space between two paragraphs.

9>STRIKETHROUGH: Draw a line between text.

10>UNDERLINE: Create a line below the selected text.

11>TEXT HIGHLIGHT COLOR:  Change the background color of the selected text to make it highlight.

12>BULLET: Create a list using symbol.

13>NUMBERING: Create a list using characters or numbers.

14>FIND: To search any text from the document.

15>REPLACE: To change the existing text with new one.

16>SHADING: Use to change the color of the line.

17>NEW: To create a new blank document.

18>SAVE:  To store any document for first time with a name and location and to save the existing document with old file name and location.

19>OPEN: Use to open existing saved document.

20>SAVE AS: To save any existing saved file with new file name or in new location we use save as.

21>SYMBOL: To input any special character to our document.

22>BOOKMARK: This application is use to mark any text so that we can search that marked text quickly afterward.

23>HYPERLINK: The text with which another text or document is linked is called hyper text.and the link between two text is called hyperlink.

24>MACRO: Macro is use to record any text so that we can run that recording when needed.

25>MAIL MERGE: Mail merge is use to merge the generic document with a main document so that we can create individual document for all.

26>DROP CAP: Use to create large initial letter.

Share

Twitter Delicious Facebook Digg Stumbleupon Favorites More